Principles of periodontal surgery (Intra-operative management of the patient)

Introduction The intra-operative management of the patient primarily includes soft tissue management and hemostasis. Because periodontal surgeries are delicate surgeries and the final outcome of the surgical procedure depends upon the vascularity of tissue, gentle handling of the tissue is very important during periodontal surgeries. In the following paragraphs, we shall read about the above-stated…

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Principles of periodontal surgeries (Preparation of the operating room, operating team and the patient)

Introduction Periodontal surgical procedures require adequate asepsis and disinfection. The preparation of the operating room, operating team, and the patient should be done systematically. An appropriately performed surgical procedure in a complete aseptic condition minimizes the chances of post-operative complications related to infections and also minimizes the chances of transmission of infections. In the following…

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Principles of periodontal surgery (Asepsis and disinfection)

Introduction to asepsis and disinfection Sterilization and disinfection are the cornerstones of any surgical procedure. Before performing a periodontal surgical procedure, the standard protocol to sterilize and disinfect the instrument and equipment should be adhered strictly. There are many items in a dental office that are used during dental surgical procedures. Many od them can…

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Principles of periodontal surgery (Pre-operative evaluation of the patient, informed consent and pre-medication)

Introduction Similar to the general principles of surgery, there are three primary objectives which should be achieved during periodontal surgery, including inflicting the wound without pain, adequate control of bleeding during the procedure and adequate healing of the wound following the procedure. Adequate asepsis and gentle handling of the tissue during the procedure ensure appropriate…

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Surgical anatomy of periodontium and related structures

Introduction Periodontium consists of gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone. These structures surround and support the teeth and function as a unit to keep the teeth in position. The components of periodontium are supported and surrounded by various anatomical structures. Periodontitis and other pathologies associated with tooth and its supporting structures are commonly treated…

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Electrosurgery in periodontal therapy

Introduction to Electrosurgery Electrosurgery is the passage of radio frequency or the high-frequency electrical current through the tissue to create a desired clinical effect on the tissue. This high-frequency energy is used to cut or coagulate the tissue. Application of high-frequency electrical current causes tissue to literally vaporize as the electrode passes through the tissue…

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Sonic and ultrasonic scalers in periodontal treatment

Introduction to scaling and root planing The periodontal treatment is initiated with the removal of bacterial deposits and calculus from the tooth surfaces to obtain a biologically acceptable root surface. At the same time, every effort is made to protect the healthy periodontal tissue from any damage. Supra- and subgingival scaling is a routine procedure…

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Principles of periodontal instrumentation

Introduction to periodontal instrumentation The accurate use of periodontal instruments is fundamental for appropriate periodontal treatment. The outcome of periodontal therapy to a great extent depends on the operator’s skill to use the periodontal instruments in an accurate manner, following the principles of instrumentation. With clinical experience, the principles of periodontal instrumentation can be mastered.…

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