Basic concepts in inflammation and mechanism of transendothelial migration of neutrophils

What is inflammation? In simple words, inflammation is the response of the living tissue to injury. The word inflammation is derived from Latin word ‘inflammare’ (to set on fire). It is a well-organized sequence of events that take place in a living tissue following an injury due to mechanical trauma, chemical trauma, toxins and infection…

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Cellular basis of immune response

Introduction to cellular immune response During embryonic development, the blood cell precursors originate mainly in the yolk sac and fetal liver. These cells differentiate into myeloid and lymphoid series. Lymphoid series leads to the development of B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and NK cells, and myeloid series leads to the formation of monocytes and macrophages, erythrocytes,  neutrophils, basophils,…

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Major histocompatibility complex

Introduction to the major histocompatibility complex Cellular interactions are very important for the recognition and presentation of antigens to the immune system by antigen-presenting cells 13, 14. The primary components of these interactions are the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules. The major function of the TCR…

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Humoral immunity

Introduction to humoral immunity Humoral immunity is the type of host defense that is mediated by antibodies, the products of B-cells. Antibodies are secreted into mucosal lumens, blood, and interstitial fluids, and combat microbes at all these sites. As already stated, B-cells are the source of antibodies, let us first understand the development and maturation…

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Immunodeficiency (Primary)

Introduction to congenital immunodeficiency conditions Immunodeficiency can be broadly classified as primary or secondary. Primary immunodeficiency results from inherited immune disorders associated with genetic mutations, usually present at birth and diagnosed in childhood. On the other hand, secondary immunodeficiency is also referred to as acquired immunodeficiency that results from disease or environmental factors, such as…

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Hypersensitivity

Introduction to hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity is an exaggerated or inappropriate reaction harmful to the host. The first response sensitizes the immune system and subsequent contacts cause an allergic reaction. Hypersensitivity is of four types; Type I hypersensitivity – Anaphylactic shock. Type II hypersensitivity – Cytotoxic hypersensitivity Type III hypersensitivity – Immune complex hypersensitivity.  TYPE IV hypersensitivity…

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