Adverse effects of periodontitis on pregnancy outcomes

Introduction to adverse pregnancy outcomes In 1931 Galloway first suggested that maternal periodontal infection may play a role in complications of pregnancy, including ”miscarriage, pyelitis, mastitis, phlebitis, anemia and toxemias of pregnancy” 1. Since then, evidence has accumulated linking the maternal periodontal disease with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In the last decade, the adverse effects of…

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Periodontitis as a risk factor for pulmonary diseases

Introduction As discussed in previous chapters, periodontal infections have been shown to act as a risk factor for various systemic diseases. With increasing research in the field of periodontal medicine, more evidence is coming into picture, demonstrating the relationship between periodontal diseases and various systemic conditions. The relationship between periodontal diseases and pulmonary infections is…

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Periodontitis as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases

Introduction to relationship between cardiovascular and periodontal diseases Periodontal infection is found worldwide and is among the most prevalent human microbial diseases. It has been mentioned that severe generalized periodontal disease is present in 8% to 13% of the world’s total adult population 1. The roles of infection and inflammation in atherosclerosis have become increasingly…

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Diabetes and periodontitis: a bidirectional relationship

Introduction to diabetes Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, characterized by an inability of the body’s cells to utilize glucose. According to World Health Organization (2014), 422 million adults are living with diabetes worldwide 1. Diabetes has been classified into two types, type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes results from…

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Smoking as a risk factor for periodontitis

Introduction Periodontal diseases are a group of conditions affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. These are multifactorial diseases where many risk factors affect the progression of the disease. Among those risk factors identified for periodontitis are bacterial colonization, age, gender, socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition, certain systemic conditions, and smoking. Tobacco smoking has been found…

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Role of genetics in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases

Introduction to the genetic aspect of periodontal diseases Periodontitis may have a slow (Grade A), moderate (Grade B) or rapid (Grade C) rate of progression (see “Classification of periodontal and peri-implant diseases and conditions”). Grade A/B periodontitis has a slow rate of disease progression which is consistent with the presence of local factors; whereas, Grade…

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Risk factors for periodontal diseases

Introduction to risk factors for periodontal diseases There is strong evidence available today suggesting a multifactorial etiology of periodontal diseases. It has been demonstrated that the susceptibility of different individuals to periodontitis for the same amount of local factors is variable. Some individuals demonstrate less periodontal breakdown, whereas other demonstrate significantly more, for a similar…

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Host response modulation therapeutic agents in periodontics

Introduction to host-modulation therapeutics As already discussed in the previous chapters, the primary etiology of periodontal diseases is bacterial infection 1. In addition to bacterial etiology, the progression of periodontal diseases is adversely influenced by a number of risk factors and risk indicators like diabetes, gender, age, hereditary factors and smoking 2. Traditional treatments focused…

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Host modulation therapy in periodontics

Introduction to host modulation As discussed in previous chapters, periodontal disease progression is associated with subgingival bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. This microbial biofilm elicits a host response, with resultant osseous and soft tissue destruction. In response to endotoxins derived from periodontal pathogens, various inflammatory chemical mediators are released by the host cells. The immunoinflammatory…

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