Piezosurgery in periodontics and oral implantology

Introduction to piezosurgery Piezosurgery is a new technique which performs osteotomy or osteoplasty utilizing ultrasonic vibrations. It is primarily an ultrasound machine with modulated frequency and a controlled tip vibration range. It has received a wide acceptance in the medical and dental profession in a relatively shorter duration of time. It has simplified the surgical…

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Periodontal microsurgery

Introduction to periodontal microsurgery Periodontal microsurgery is one of the many advances that have taken place in the field of surgical periodontal therapy. Microsurgery is described as a methodology, a modification, and refinement of existing surgical techniques that uses magnification to improve visualization and has implications for and applicability to all specialities1. Historically, the first…

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Application of platelet concentrates in periodontal regeneration

Introduction to platelet concentrates With our improved understanding regarding cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in periodontal wound healing, various regenerative techniques including, root surface biomodification, guided tissue regeneration, guided bone regeneration and application of growth factors and platelet concentrates have been introduced in periodontal regeneration. Application of platelet concentrates has been our focus of research…

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Bone morphogenetic proteins in periodontal regeneration

Introduction to Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs): Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are composed of 400-525 amino acids. These comprise one subset of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. They play important roles in a multitude of processes during embryonic development and adult homeostasis by regulating cellular lineage commitment, morphogenesis, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis of various types of…

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Application of growth factors in periodontal regeneration

Introduction to growth factors Growth factors are polypeptide molecules released by cells in the inflamed area that regulate events in wound healing. These are naturally occurring proteins that regulate various aspects of cell growth and development, acting locally or systemically. “Growth factor” is a general term to denote a class of polypeptide hormones that stimulate…

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Biology of periodontal regeneration

Introduction to periodontal regeneration The ultimate goal of periodontal treatment is the regeneration of lost periodontal structures. Regeneration can be defined as the reproduction or reformation of organs or tissues that have been lost or injured as a result of a wound or infection. Periodontal regeneration results in functionally aligned periodontal ligament fibers between newly…

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Adverse effects of periodontitis on pregnancy outcomes

Introduction to adverse pregnancy outcomes In 1931 Galloway first suggested that maternal periodontal infection may play a role in complications of pregnancy, including ”miscarriage, pyelitis, mastitis, phlebitis, anemia and toxemias of pregnancy” 1. Since then, evidence has accumulated linking the maternal periodontal disease with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In the last decade, the adverse effects of…

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Stress as a risk factor for periodontal diseases

Introduction to stress The word ‘stress’ was first used in life science by Hans Selye in 1936. It is derived from the Latin word “stringere” which means “tight,” or “strained”. In the last few decades, research has demonstrated a correlation between stress and periodontal diseases. Our current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of periodontal diseases indicates…

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