Periodontal treatment of elderly patients

Introduction Due to improvement in the health care facilities the population of elderly individuals in increasing throughout the world. The oral health-related problems in geriatric patients are different from those seen in younger individuals. One of the most important criteria determining the oral and periodontal health in elderly individuals is how they have been taking…

Read More

Periodontal treatment of female patients

Introduction Periodontal treatment of a female patient presents a unique challenge to the clinicians because of the effect of variations in hormonal levels on oral soft tissues. Hormonal variations during the lifetime of a female patient during puberty, pregnancy, on the usage of oral contraceptives and menopause may cause worsening of the existing periodontal disease…

Read More

Human immunodeficiency virus infection: case definition, staging and treatment protocol

Introduction to human immunodeficiency virus The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus belonging to the family of lentiviruses which causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) in humans. Since the identification of this virus, extensive research has been done on HIV to understand its life cycle, routes of transmission, pathogenesis of AIDS and possible cure…

Read More

Acute gingival and periodontal lesions

Introduction to acute periodontal conditions Acute periodontal diseases are clinical conditions of rapid onset that involve the periodontium or associated structures and may be characterized by discomfort or pain and infection 1. Patients have moderate to acute pain in these conditions which requires urgent attention. These lesions cause rapid destruction of the tissue. Prompt diagnosis…

Read More

Desquamative gingivitis

Introduction to desquamative gingivitis Desquamative gingivitis (DG) is the clinical term given to the gingival manifestation of mucocutaneous diseases. This gingival condition is characterized by intense erythema, sloughing off or ulceration that is commonly associated with some kind of systemic autoimmune disease. This condition is non-plaque associated and may be localized to the marginal gingiva,…

Read More

Periodontitis: Clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria and treatment modalities

Introduction to periodontitis The 2017, World Workshop on the classification of periodontal and peri-implant diseases and conditions defines periodontitis as a chronic multifactorial inflammatory disease associated with dysbiotic plaque biofilms and characterized by progressive destruction of the tooth-supporting apparatus 1. This disease may progress rapidly or slowly and has been presently categorized in Stages and…

Read More

Patterns of bone destruction in periodontal diseases

Introduction to bone destruction in periodontitis Microbial etiology of periodontal diseases is well established, but the present data strongly suggest an equally important role of host immune response in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. The initial response to bacterial infection is a local inflammatory reaction that activates the innate immune system, causing the release of…

Read More