Periodontal treatment of elderly patients

Introduction Due to improvement in the health care facilities the population of elderly individuals in increasing throughout the world. The oral health-related problems in geriatric patients are different from those seen in younger individuals. One of the most important criteria determining the oral and periodontal health in elderly individuals is how they have been taking…

Read More

Periodontal treatment of female patients

Introduction Periodontal treatment of a female patient presents a unique challenge to the clinicians because of the effect of variations in hormonal levels on oral soft tissues. Hormonal variations during the lifetime of a female patient during puberty, pregnancy, on the usage of oral contraceptives and menopause may cause worsening of the existing periodontal disease…

Read More

Human immunodeficiency virus infection: case definition, staging and treatment protocol

Introduction to human immunodeficiency virus The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus belonging to the family of lentiviruses which causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) in humans. Since the identification of this virus, extensive research has been done on HIV to understand its life cycle, routes of transmission, pathogenesis of AIDS and possible cure…

Read More

Acute gingival and periodontal lesions

Introduction to acute periodontal conditions Acute periodontal diseases are clinical conditions of rapid onset that involve the periodontium or associated structures and may be characterized by discomfort or pain and infection 1. Patients have moderate to acute pain in these conditions which requires urgent attention. These lesions cause rapid destruction of the tissue. Prompt diagnosis…

Read More

Periodontitis as a risk factor for pulmonary diseases

Introduction As discussed in previous chapters, periodontal infections have been shown to act as a risk factor for various systemic diseases. With increasing research in the field of periodontal medicine, more evidence is coming into picture, demonstrating the relationship between periodontal diseases and various systemic conditions. The relationship between periodontal diseases and pulmonary infections is…

Read More

Periodontitis as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases

Introduction to relationship between cardiovascular and periodontal diseases Periodontal infection is found worldwide and is among the most prevalent human microbial diseases. It has been mentioned that severe generalized periodontal disease is present in 8% to 13% of the world’s total adult population 1. The roles of infection and inflammation in atherosclerosis have become increasingly…

Read More

Diabetes and periodontitis: a bidirectional relationship

Introduction to diabetes Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, characterized by an inability of the body’s cells to utilize glucose. According to World Health Organization (2014), 422 million adults are living with diabetes worldwide 1. Diabetes has been classified into two types, type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes results from…

Read More