Multiple Choice Questions Test - XIV (Basic Periodontology)

This is a self assessment test consisting of ten questions. Click evaluate to get result.

1. Gingival and sulcular epithelial cells produce following antimicrobial peptides,

Gingival epithelium, just like other epithelial barriers (i.e. skin), provides an outermost physical barrier so that microorganisms cannot enter our body. In addition to being a physical barrier, gingival epithelium produces antimicrobial peptides called defensins. The gingival and sulcular epithelial cells produce α and β-defensinss (hBD-1 and hBD-2), cathelicidin class antimicrobial peptide LL-37 to act against microbial colonization and saposins. The junctional and sulcular epithelial cells also interact with bacterial products and secrete chemokines (IL-8, CXCL-8) that attract the neutrophils toward the bacteria concentrated region.


Marshall R I. Gingival defensins: linking the innate and adaptive immune responses to dental plaque. Periodontol 2000 2004;35:14-20.

Newman , Michael G.. Carranza`s Clinical Periodontology, 11th Edition. Saunders Book Company, 022011.

α and β –defensins.
All of above.
Correct Answer - option 4

2. Periecan is,

Periecan is a Proteoglycan. Proteoglycans are found in the extracellular matrix and attached to the cell membrane. They consist of a  core protein to which one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains can be attached at specific sites. Following table describes different proteoglycans.

Abbrevations: chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), keratan sulfate (KS), and heparan sulfate (HS).


Type of proteoglycans


Core Protein kDA

Number of Chains

GAG type




Small interstitial proteoglycans




36 kDa


38 kDa








Secreted, connective tissue

Secreted, connective tissue




Aggrecan family of matrix proteoglycans










208-220 kDa


96 kDa


145 kDa


265 kDa


~ 100
















Secreted, cartilage

Secreted, brain


Secreted, brain


Secreted, fibroblasts






HS proteoglycans





Syndecans 1-4




Glypicans 1-5



400 kDa


212 kDa


31-45 kDa


110 kDa


~60 kDa


10-19 kDa





 1-2 HS; 1-3 CS


1 HS, 1 CD




10-15 heparin












Basement membrane

 Basement membrane


Epithelial cells, fibroblasts



Epithelial cells, fibroblasts


Mast cells



KS proteoglycans








59 kDa


37 kDa


37 kDa


105 kDa








KS 1


KS 1


KS 1











Cell surface glycoprotein which helps anchor the firboblast to the extracellular matrix.
Plays a role in the regulation of growth of the collagne fibrils.
Assists bonding cell surface glycoperoteins to the extracellular matrix.
A glycoprotein with unknown function
Correct Answer - option 1

3. Zone of Shear is present in

Zone of Shear is present in periodontal ligament. It is the site of periodontal ligament remodelling during eruption. Some authors believe that this zone lies near the center of periodontal ligament.


Reference: Orban`s Oral Histology and Embryology. Page 191.

Periodontal ligament
All of above.
Correct Answer - option 3

4. The predominant MMPs in periodontitis MMP-8 and MMP-9 are secreted by

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are crucial inflammatory leukocytes in host protection from infection, where their primary role is in phagocytosis and killing of bacteria, fungi and protozoa, and in wound debridement and healing. Proteolysis of phagosome contents and damaged extracellular matrix are key PMN actions in inflammation. MMP-8 the neutrophil collagenase, is produced primarily by PMNs and is released from the specific granules at sites of inflammation. MMP-9 is also released from neutrophils on activation.


Golub LM, Sorsa T, Lee HM, Ciancio S, Sorbi D, Ramamurthy NS, Gruber B, Salo T, Konttinen YT. Doxycycline inhibits neutrophil (PMN)-type matrix metalloproteinases in human adult periodontitis gingiva. J Clin Periodontol 1995: 22: 100–109.

None of above.
Correct Answer - option 2

5. In tissue sections, osteoclasts are identified by

Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells which in tissue section show expression of calcitonin receptors. They have a positive staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatise (TRAP).

Their multinucleated appearance.
Expression of calcitonin receptors.
Positive staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatise (TRAP).
All of above.
Correct Answer - option 4

6. Vitamin K analogues are required for growth of certain species which include

Porphyromonas and Prevotella species require Vit-K analogues for their growth

Streptococcus species.
Treponema species.
Porphyromonas and Prevotella species.
Compylobacter species.
Correct Answer - option 3

7. Osteopontin transcription is strongly up-regulated by vitamin D3 whereas bone sialoprotein transcription is suppressed by vitamin D3

Osteocalcin and osteopontin transcription is strongly up-regulated by vitamin D3 and core binding factor a1, whereas bone sialoprotein transcription is suppressed by vitamin D3. The expression of both proteins is stimulated by factors that stimulate bone formation, such as transforming growth factor-b family members and glucocorticoids, consistent with the role of bone sialoprotein in bone formation and the dual role of osteopontin in bone formation and resorption

Reference: Jaro Sodek & Marc D.Mckee.Molecular and cellular biology of alveolar bone. Periodontology 2000, Vol. 24, 2000, 99–126

Both the statements are correct
Only first statement is correct
Only second statement is correct
Both the statements are incorrect
Correct Answer - option 1

8. Anticytokine drugs used in host modulation therapy is/are

Inflximab is a monoclonal antibody against tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) used to treat autoimmune diseases and its use as host modulating agent has been well established. Etanercept is also used to treat certain autoimmune disorders as host modulating agent. It is a dimeric fusion protein consisting of the extracellular ligand-binding portion of the human 75 kilodalton (p75) tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1.

Zoledronic Acid
Both A and B
Correct Answer - option 4

9. Concentration of tetracycline in GCF is

Studies have shown that tetracyclines have a distinctive property of concentrating in GCF at levels from two to 10 times greater than that of the serum after a single 250-mg dose.


Gordon IM, Walker CB, Murphy IC, Goodson IM, Socransky SS (1981b). Tetracycline: levels achievable in gingival crevice fluid and in vitro effect on subgingival organisms. Part I. Concentrations in crevicular fluid after repeated doses. I Periodontol 52:609-611.

2 to 10 times more than that of serum
10 to 15 times more than that of serum.
15 to 20 times more than that of serum
50 to 100 times more than that of serum
Correct Answer - option 1

10. Subantimicrobial-dose of doxycycline (SDD) achieves blood levels of

The low-dose doxycycline capsules containing as low as 20 mg of doxycycline. These specially formulated capsules contain a lower concentration of doxycycline than the regular commercial dosage form, with blood levels reaching around 0.2 to 0.3 μg/ml.  Low-dose doxycycline eliminates the drug`s antibacterial function, while allowing the drug to block collagenase activity.


Mea A. Weinberg and Michael Bral. Tetracycline and Its Analogues: a Therapeutic Paradigm in Periodontal Diseases. CROBM 1998 9: 322

Around 0.2 to 0.3 μg/ml
Around 1.0 to 2.0 μg/ml
Around 2.0 to 3.0 μg/ml
Around 3.0 to 5.0 μg/ml
Correct Answer - option 1

11. Smoking has all the following effects on host immune response except,

Various aspects of host immune response are affected by smoking. These include adverse effect on fibroblast function, defective chemotaxis and phagocytosis by neutrophils and disturbance in immunoglobulin production. Studies have shown elevated levels of TNF-α in the gingival crevicular fluid of  smokers as well as elevated levels of PGE 2, neutrophil elastase, and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8). Lymphocyte production is decreased in smokers which further adversely affects the host response.


Raulin LA, McPherson JC, McQuade MJ, Hanson BS (1988). The effect of nicotine on the attachment of human fibroblasts to glass and human root surfaces in vitro. Periodontol 59:318-325.

Kenney EB, Kraal IH, Saxe SR, Jones I (1977). The effect of cigarette smoke on human oral polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Periodont Res 12:227-234.

Holt PG (1987). lmmune and inflammatory function in cigarette smokers. Thorax 42:241-249.

Altered fibroblast attachment and functions.
Increased neutrophil collagenases and elastases in GCF.
Increased lymphocyte proliferation.
Decreased immunoglobulin production.
Correct Answer - option 3

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